Centrifugal pumps are specialized devices that move fluids through the transfer of rotational energy from one or more driven rotors or impellers.
When fluid enters a rotating impeller, it is cast out by centrifugal force along its circumference through its vane tips. This process increases liquid velocity and pressure and directs it toward the pump outlet.
The pump casing then compresses the fluid from the pump inlet, directs it into the impeller, and slows down and controls it before it is discharged.
Applications of Centrifugal Pumps
Centrifugal pumps are used across a wide range of industries. They are essential features in places where hydrocarbons are transferred and refined, petro-chemicals are manufactured and large volumes of liquid must be transferred with controlled flow and pressures.
Another popular centrifugal pump application is removing or supplying water from and to residential and commercial buildings and agricultural areas.
This mechanical device is also used in fire protection systems, sewage and slurry disposal, and various food and beverage manufacturing operations.
Benefits of Using Centrifugal Pumps
Below are the top advantages of using centrifugal pumps:
1. Smooth, unimpeded flow
High-quality centrifugal pumps deliver smooth, pulseless flow. They do not pulsate water, which comes with typical fluid-moving devices, that often results in potentially dangerous splashing and pipework shaking.
Good-quality centrifugal pumps reduce the need for their frequent replacement. They also don’t require the installation of additional equipment, such as pulsation dampeners.
2. Resistance to corrosion
The materials and construction of centrifugal pumps allow them to withstand harsh chemicals and conditions. Other types of fluid-moving equipment tend to rust and, thus, break down quickly.
Being corrosion resistant means centrifugal pumps can also transfer different types of fluids in various conditions. They are durable, so they remain functional longer.
3. Wide range of sizes
Centrifugal pumps come in a wide range of sizes.
The different sizes available means they can be used for various fluid transfer applications in a variety of settings.
4. Reliability and low maintenance requirements
High-quality centrifugal pumps can be counted on for continuous, long-lasting performance in a wide range of applications and industries.
Additionally, they have low routine maintenance requirements. Their well-thought-out and efficient design minimizes the number of parts that require maintenance or replacement. This particular characteristic also ensures the devices come with lesser repair costs and reduced downtime.
5. Energy efficiency
Well-made centrifugal chemical pumps are more energy-efficient than other traditional fluid-moving equipment. This feature lowers costs in the short term and over the lifecycle of each device.
Additionally, this pump feature also minimizes the strain of the equipment on energy systems. This is critical in industries and settings that require the simultaneous use of multiple pumps and other equipment.
Types of Centrifugal Pumps
Centrifugal pumps are categorized based on stage, suction type, split case, shaft orientation, and standard specifications.
The classification of centrifugal pumps by stage depends on the device’s number of impellers.
- Single-stage: This type of pump has only one impeller within its casing. It is highly suitable for low-pressure operations where a huge flow rate is maintained.
- Two-stage: This centrifugal pump type has two impellers functioning together to pump liquids. This device is best used in medium head applications.
- Multi-stage: Multi-stage pumps have three or more impellers are used to achieve optimal efficiency. This particular centrifugal pump is recommended for high head applications.
For this category, centrifugal pumps are classified based on how fluid enters the impeller blades through the pump.
- Single suction: Under this type, fluid enters through only one side of the impeller blades.
- Double suction: This device allows fluid to enter through two sides of the impeller blades.
The split case feature of centrifugal pumps determines how they develop pressure.
- Axial: Centrifugal pumps with an axial split case have impellers that create pressure by pushing the liquid parallel to the pump shaft.
- Radial: Under this type, the impeller creates pressure by moving the liquid perpendicular to the pump shaft.
This category classifies centrifugal pumps based on the direction of the shaft within the device.
- Horizontal: Horizontal pumps have horizontally positioned shafts. They are easy to install and maintain.
- Vertical: Vertical centrifugal pumps have their shafts in the vertical plane. The shafts of these devices are specially designed and have a bearing support configuration making them suitable for direct connection to an electric motor.
Certain facilities and applications require pumps to meet standard specifications.
- American National Standards Institute or ANSI: Fluid-moving devices certified by this organization meet the standards of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. These pumps are interchangeable with other ANSI pumps of similar sizes.
- International Organization for Standardization or ISO: ISO-certified pumps meet a variety of established requirements in terms of performance, serviceability, reliability, and longevity.
- American Petroleum Institute or API: Centrifugal pumps with API certification meet strict standards verifying they can handle the high pressure and temperature demands of the oil and gas industry.
- Deutsches Institut für Normung (German Institute for Standardization) or DIN: DIN-certified pumps are suitable for applications that call for large flow rates and extremely high pressures and temperatures.
With this information, you can make a better decision when you need to invest in new centrifugal pumps.
Speak with one of our sales staff to get help with choosing the right fluid-moving equipment for your operational needs.